Students, during this 3rd round of extended time due to the coronavirus threat, please go ahead and copy the following shortened notes into your World History notebooks. I also encourage you, if you are able, to watch some more of John Green’s crash course videos, especially these:
French Revolution – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTTvKwCylFY&list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=29
Industrial Revolution – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhL5DCizj5c&list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=32
Ch. 22-25 Notes on American, French, Industrial Revolutions and Imperialism
Causes of American Revolution – British had run up a massive debt during the French and Indian War, They came up with various ways to tax the colonists. English citizens had rights that the Colonists were not being granted. The colonists wanted to be self-governed since Parliament in London was too far away for them to have representation. Parliament said “No!”
Enlightenment and Revolution – John Locke and other philosophers made the colonists think that it was unjust for Britain to tax them without considering their views. “No taxation without representation” went up throughout the colonies.
Independence – In 1776 the colonists declared their independence from Britain. The U.S. Constitution created a system in which power was shared between the national and state governments. It also created a system of checks and balances.
The French Revolution – 1789- 1815
French Social Divisions – First Estate – priests and church officials (paid no taxes), Second Estate – nobility (paid very few taxes), Third Estate – everybody else, 98% of population, including peasants and the bourgeoisie – middle classes of merchants, professionals, and shopkeepers. (paid most of the taxes)
Causes of the War – Absolute Monarchy (Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette), French Social Divisions (Estates System), Nobles had many special privileges, such being exempt from taxes, Enlightenment ideas made the people unwilling to accept the divine right of kings, Financial Crisis- different social classes paid different taxes, Other Revolutions such as the American Revolution.
Main Events of the Revolution – The National Assembly was formed, NA stormed the Bastille, The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was issued, The slogan of the Revolution became “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity”, Basically, the Third Estate took over.
France Becomes a Republic – In 1791 King Louis XVI was overthrown and France became a Republic, King Louis XVI is captured, tried, and executed for committing crimes against his own people.
Committee of Public Safety – Group of radicals led by Robespierre, Began a “Reign of Terror” in France, Used force to crush rebellions, Around 40,000 suspected traitors were executed.
Rise of Napoleon – In 1799 he seized power in France, He attempted to combine the social reforms of the French Revolution with his own absolute power, In 1804, he crowned himself emperor of France, By 1805 he had defeated all of the other powers in Europe except Britain.
Fall of Napoleon – His mighty ambitions united most of Europe against him, Could not invade England, Economic problems, Unpopularity of French rule in Europe, His failed Russian Campaign of 1812 (Lost 98% of Army), He was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo.
Restoring the Old Order – The Congress of Vienna restored former rulers and borders bringing Europe back to prerevolutionary times, They established a balance of power to prevent one country from becoming too strong, William Wilberforce is responsible for the abolishment of slavery in England as well as France and Spain.
The Independence of Latin America – American and French Revolutions spread revolutionary ideas to Latin America, Simon Bolivar emerged as the most important leader in the struggle for independence, The Monroe Doctrine in 1823 helped protect newly independent countries of South America
The Industrial Revolution:
Free Enterprise System – AKA Capitalism, People are free to do whatever they want economically, They can decide what to buy, where to work, and what to make, Government interference is limited.
Adam Smith – A Scottish professor, was the first to explain how the free enterprise system works, He explained that inefficient producers go out of business and only those producers who make the best goods and sell them at the best prices survive.
Industrial Revolution – Brought about fundamental changes in the way goods are made, Introduced mass production (the large-scale production of identical goods), Introduced new sources of energy to improve efficiency, People made goods in factories instead of at home, Science became more linked to technology, resulting in a stream of constant innovations. Pre-Conditions for Industrialization Beginning in Great Britain: Geographical Advantages, Transportation and Communications, Large Colonial Empire, Powerful Middle Class, Agricultural Improvements.
Innovations in Textile Manufacturing – The Spinning Jenny (1764) used a single wheel to control several spindles allowing many threads to be spun at once. Large quantities of threads could now be made quickly and inexpensively. James Watt improved the steam engine (1769) which made steam power available for mechanical purposes. Now factories could be built anywhere, since water was no longer required to power their machines.
Shift From Home To Factory – During the Industrial Revolution workers began working in factories, where they used machines driven by water or steam power. Production increased dramatically.
Working Conditions – Unsafe and Unpleasant Conditions, Long Hours, Low Pay, Women and Children Also Worked.
Urbanization – Fewer people were needed on farms because of agricultural improvements, Large numbers of workers moved from their farms and homes in the countryside to cities, Cities became crowded and highly unsanitary, Pollution from factory smoke became a growing problem.
Changes in Transportation Technology – Steam engines were applied to steam boats in the early 1800’s, In the 1820’s they were used to power locomotives, Railroads unified the economy of a region by linking cities, factories, towns, and the countryside together.
Reform Movements – Social Reforms- Parliament banned women and children from working in the mines, limited working hours to ten hours, and brought about safer working conditions, Municipal Reforms- Made cities cleaner, improved quality of drinking water, introduced sewer systems, put in street lamps, employed police forces, and introduced free public schools, Worker’s Unions- Some workers organized into unions and threatened to strike if they did not obtain higher wages and better conditions, Political Reforms- The rising middle class of factory owners, merchants, and bankers demanded greater political power. By the late 19th century, all adult males could vote in Britain, but not women.
Imperialism – The political and economic control of one area or country by another. In the 19th century, the European Great Powers suddenly acquired vast colonial empires in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.
The British Raj (Reign) in India – During the 18th century, the British had defeated France and many local rulers to extend their control throughout much of the Indian subcontinent. British rule brought many changes.
Impact of British Rule in India – Government – The British provided a single system of law and government, unifying India. Economic – The British built roads, bridges, and railroads and set up telegraph wires. Health – The British built hospitals, introduced new medicines, and provided famine relief. Social – Indians were looked down upon by the British and their culture was treated as inferior to European culture.
New Imperialism – From 1880 to 1900, almost every corner of the Earth came to be claimed by European powers.
Causes of New Imperialism – Advancements in technology such as the steamboat, telegram, railroads, medicines, and rifles helped make it possible. New European countries like Germany, Italy, and Belgium wanted colonies to show they were equal to older European states. European countries sought colonies to obtain resources and to find markets to sell their manufactured goods. Many European imperialists looked to dominate Africa and Asia as part of their duty to spread what they saw as their superior civilization and culture. (“White Man’s Burden”).
The Scramble for Africa – From 1870 – 1900, European powers competed for control of Africa and its resources. In 1884 European rulers met to carve up the map of Africa at the Berlin Conference
The Legacy of Imperialism in Africa – POSITIVE EFFECTS: New medicine and nutrition increased life-span of Africans, Modern transportation and communications were introduced, Some Africans received educational and economic opportunities. NEGATIVE EFFECTS: Erosion of traditional African values and relationships, Forced to work long hours for low pay under horrible conditions, Tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries were ignored leading to continuing tribal conflicts.
Informal Imperialism – Even in areas where they did not establish direct rule, European powers often dominated an area’s economy.
Spanish-American War – In 1898, the battleship U.S.S. Maine was blown up, killing 250 American sailors. The US declared war on Spain and defeated them quickly. As a result, the US acquired its first colonies – Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.