At Home Learning 4/27/20 – 5/8/20

Students, during this 4th and final round of at-home learning, please go ahead and copy the following shortened notes into your World History notebooks. Since school has been canceled for the year, it is very important that you take pictures of the vocabulary and notes that you have written in your notebook for these at home learning assignments and email them to me at [email protected] . If you are having difficulty emailing me pictures of your vocabulary and notes, let me know. I also encourage you, if you are able, to watch some more videos that go along with these lessons. I definitely recommend watching the following videos, if you are able, to gain a better understanding of World War I and II and other major events of the 20th century.

Hope yall are all doing well!

Thanks,

Coach Blankenship

 

 

Keith Hughes on WWI – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOq8iG20iuQ

John Green Crash Course on WWI – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_XPZQ0LAlR4

Indy Neidell The Great War WWI Trench Warfare – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P92guhd7d-8

John Green Crash Course on The Great Depression – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCQfMWAikyU

History Channel Documentary WWII From Space (lengthy but very good) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N-P4GoG69Xw

Keith Hughes on WWII – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7fCsXjCW1M

 

 

Ch. 27 World War 1

The causes of World War I – Militarism, Alliance System, Imperialism, Industrialization, and Nationalism

Militarism – aggressive preparation for war

Archduke Francis Ferdinand – heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire that is assassinated in Bosnia by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand. Austria wants to attack Serbia, but fears Russia because of an alliance between Russia and Serbia. 

Emperor William II of Germany promises Germany’s full support to Austria Hungary because of an alliance between the two countries.

Czar Nicholas II of Russia orders mobilization of Russia’s military to defend Serbia.

Schlieffen Plan- Germany plans for a two front war. To the East – Russia, To the West – France. 

Great Britain declares war on Germany when Germany violates Belgian neutrality. 

Propoganda – ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.

Trench Warfare – new style of warfare where both sides dig trenches to avoid certain death from enemy machine gun and artillery fire. New technology and industrialization had changed warfare forever. Both sides become bogged down and the war becomes a war of attrition (trying to wear the other side down).

Air Warfare – the first military airplanes were used to spot enemy positions, attack ground targets, and shoot down enemy aircraft.

U-boats – German submarines used to attack large military and civilian ships.

Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire

Allied Powers – Russia, France, Great Britain, Serbia, Italy, Romania, Greece, Portugal, United States (eventually)

The United States officially enters WWI, primarily because of Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare (German U-boats sinking civilian ships, including the Lusitania)

Russia was unprepared for war and suffered many losses, by 1917 Russia no longer wants to fight. Strikes break out and the government is overthrown after a civil war between the communists and anti-communists. The USSR or Soviet Union is born and Russia becomes a Communist country and ends its involvement in WWI by giving up a large territory. 

The United States really came in and helped win the war for the Allied Powers. Armistice (a truce or agreement to stop fighting) is signed on Nov. 11 1918. Woodrow Wilson was the US President during the war and was a spokesperson for democracy. 

Treaty of Versailles – Treaty that officially ended WWI. Germany was declared responsible for starting the war and had to make reparations payments. The Germans felt it was a harsh peace. 

League of Nations – Loose union of countries to ensure peace following WWI. This was part of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, which was his plan for just and lasting peace. However, Wilson could not get Congress to agree to join and it was very ineffective.

Ch. 28-30 The Great Depression and World War 2

U.S. After WWI – Emerged as the world’s greatest economic power. In 1924, 9 out of every 10 cars in the world were Ford’s. New appliances like the vacuum cleaner, refrigerator, and toaster were being enjoyed by America and Europe. 

The Great Depression – In 1929, a stock market crash in New York started a chain reaction that sent the world into the Great Depression. The two main causes were over-speculation and over-production. 

Reaction to the Great Depression – Most countries stopped spending and cut off trade, which made things worse. US President Franklin Roosevelt implemented his New Deal plan to put people back to work with public works projects. 

Fascism – refers to a new political system that appeared in Europe in the disturbed conditions after WWI. Main characteristics of Fascism – Extreme Nationalism, All Powerful Leaders, Unity of All Social Classes, Extreme Militarism. The roots of Fascism include anti-semitism (hatred of Jews), racism in general, and Social Darwinism. 

Benito Mussolini – Fascist that rose to power in Italy, had a private army called the “Black Shirts”, passed laws controlling the press, abolished unions, and murdered anyone that got in his way.

Adolf Hitler – Leader of the Nazi party in Germany, stirring speaker and writer (wrote Mein Kampf about his radical ideas), believed Germans were a superior “Aryan” race that should rule the world. The Nazis used violence to take full control in Germany and Hitler became absolute dictator. Jews were persecuted and killed. Hitler created jobs through public works projects and military rearmament. The Gestapo (secret police) arrested anyone who opposed Nazi rule. 

Origins of WWII – Hitler sought revenge from Britain and France for Germany’s humiliating defeat in WWI. Hitler and Mussolini of Italy worked together to take aggressive steps. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, Hitler demanded Austria and part of Czechoslovakia. Britain and France appeased Hitler to try to avoid war. Then Hitler demanded Poland, but they refused to give in. The League of Nations failed to take action against Hitler’s Treaty Violations. In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, starting WWII. 

Nazi Blitzkrieg – Germany used planes, tanks, and motorized troop carriers to advance rapidly into enemy territory crushing any resistance. The Nazi Germans quickly overran Poland, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, France, and much of North Africa. 

Battle of Britain – Hitler hoped to overcome British resistance by bombing London and other British cities from the air. Winston Churchill, Britain’s Prime Minister rallied British resistance. The use of radar, the bravery of the British air force, and Britain’s island location kept Hitler from defeating the British.

Germany Invades the Soviet Union – In 1941, Hitler betrayed an agreement with Stalin by launching a surprise attack on the Soviet Union, successfully invading deep into Russia. The winter of 1941 was one of the coldest on record, freezing German tanks and trucks. Stalingrad was a key victory for the Soviets where they began to push the Germans back. 

The War in Asia – Japan began invading China and other parts of Asia in the late 19th century for raw materials and markets for its successful industrialization. Only the United States was in position to prevent further Japanese expansion. The US threatened to blockade Japan’s oil supplies, unless Japan gave up some of its conquests. In response, Japan planned a surprise attack. 

Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 Japan launched a massive surprise air attack on the US fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. More than 2,400 Americans were killed in this attack. Soon after, Hitler quickly joined Japan by declaring war on the United States. 

Allied Powers – United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union, France

Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan

D-Day – June 6,1944 Allied troops landed in Normandy France to take on Hitler’s forces. Despite heavy casualties the Allies successfully overcame the German defense and began pushing into Europe.

The Holocaust – Refers to the attempted genocide of the Jews of Europe during WWII by the Nazis. Jews were sent to concentration camps where most of them were killed with poison gas. The ones that were spared did the work of running the camp and were subject to starvation and inhumane conditions. About 6 million Jews (⅔ of those living in Europe) were killed in the Holocaust. Also, about 6 million gypsies, Slavs, political prisoners, elderly, and mentally disabled people were also killed. 

The War Ends in Europe – Germany began to lose ground on both the Eastern front by the Soviet Union, and on the western front by the United States and Britain. By 1945, the Allies occupied all of Germany. Hitler preferred the destruction of his country rather than its surrender and he committed suicide. Soon after, German military leaders surrendered. Several major Nazi leaders were tried and executed for “crimes against humanity” during the Nuremberg Trials. 

The War in Asia Continues – Since Pearl Harbor, the US Navy began to slowly attack Pacific Islands that had come under Japanese control (island hopping). After Germany was defeated, the US turned its full strength against Japan. 

Albert Einstein – German Jewish physicist, that escaped Nazi rule and fled to the United States. He wrote a letter to President Roosevelt urging him to support research into an “extremely powerful bomb of a new type.” 

The Atomic Bomb Ends the War – Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project where leading scientists gathered in New Mexico to develop an atomic bomb. After Roosevelt’s death, Harry Truman authorized the use of the new atomic bomb against Japan, hoping to avoid the high casualties expected for both sides in a land invasion of Japan. Atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Japanese leaders were forced to surrender. WWII finally came to an end. 

The Global Impact of WWII – As many as 70 million people died during WWII and much of Europe and Asia lay in ruins. Germany, Italy, and Japan were occupied and turned into democratic nations. 

The United Nations – a new peace-keeping organization founded at the end of WWII (the US joined this time). It’s purpose was to maintain peace in the world while encouraging friendship and cooperation. Members agree to give up the use of force, except in self-defense. Also seeks to eliminate hunger, disease, and ignorance. 

 

At Home Learning 4/13/20 – 4/26/20

Students, during this 3rd round of extended time due to the coronavirus threat, please go ahead and copy the following shortened notes into your World History notebooks. I also encourage you, if you are able, to watch some more of John Green’s crash course videos, especially these: 

French Revolution – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTTvKwCylFY&list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=29

Industrial Revolution – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhL5DCizj5c&list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=32

Imperialism – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=alJaltUmrGo&list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=35

 

Ch. 22-25 Notes on American, French, Industrial Revolutions and Imperialism

Causes of American Revolution – British had run up a massive debt during the French and Indian War, They came up with various ways to tax the colonists. English citizens had rights that the Colonists were not being granted. The colonists wanted to be self-governed since Parliament in London was too far away for them to have representation. Parliament said “No!”

Enlightenment and Revolution – John Locke and other philosophers made the colonists think that it was unjust for Britain to tax them without considering their views. “No taxation without representation” went up throughout the colonies.

Independence – In 1776 the colonists declared their independence from Britain. The U.S. Constitution created a system in which power was shared between the national and state governments.  It also created a system of checks and balances.

The French Revolution – 1789- 1815

French Social Divisions – First Estate – priests and church officials (paid no taxes), Second Estate – nobility (paid very few taxes), Third Estate – everybody else, 98% of population, including peasants and the bourgeoisie – middle classes of merchants, professionals, and shopkeepers. (paid most of the taxes)

Causes of the War – Absolute Monarchy (Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette), French Social Divisions (Estates System), Nobles had many special privileges, such being exempt from taxes, Enlightenment ideas made the people unwilling to accept the divine right of kings, Financial Crisis- different social classes paid different taxes, Other Revolutions such as the American Revolution.

Main Events of the Revolution – The National Assembly was formed, NA stormed the Bastille, The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was issued, The slogan of the Revolution became “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity”, Basically, the Third Estate took over.

France Becomes a Republic – In 1791 King Louis XVI was overthrown and France became a Republic, King Louis XVI is captured, tried, and executed for committing crimes against his own people.

Committee of Public Safety – Group of radicals led by Robespierre, Began a “Reign of Terror” in France, Used force to crush rebellions, Around 40,000 suspected traitors were executed.

Rise of Napoleon – In 1799 he seized power in France, He attempted to combine the social reforms of the French Revolution with his own absolute power, In 1804, he crowned himself emperor of France, By 1805 he had defeated all of the other powers in Europe except Britain.

Fall of Napoleon – His mighty ambitions united most of Europe against him, Could not invade England, Economic problems, Unpopularity of French rule in Europe, His failed Russian Campaign of 1812 (Lost 98% of Army), He was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo.

Restoring the Old Order – The Congress of Vienna restored former rulers and borders bringing Europe back to prerevolutionary times, They established a balance of power to prevent one country from becoming too strong, William Wilberforce is responsible for the abolishment of slavery in England as well as France and Spain.

The Independence of Latin America – American and French Revolutions spread revolutionary ideas to Latin America, Simon Bolivar emerged as the most important leader in the struggle for independence, The Monroe Doctrine in 1823 helped protect newly independent countries of South America

The Industrial Revolution:

Free Enterprise System – AKA Capitalism, People are free to do whatever they want economically, They can decide what to buy, where to work, and what to make, Government interference is limited.

Adam Smith – A Scottish professor, was the first to explain how the free enterprise system works, He explained that inefficient producers go out of business and only those producers who make the best goods and sell them at the best prices survive.

Industrial Revolution – Brought about fundamental changes in the way goods are made, Introduced mass production (the large-scale production of identical goods), Introduced new sources of energy to improve efficiency, People made goods in factories instead of at home, Science became more linked to technology, resulting in a stream of constant innovations. Pre-Conditions for Industrialization Beginning in Great Britain: Geographical Advantages, Transportation and Communications, Large Colonial Empire, Powerful Middle Class, Agricultural Improvements.

Innovations in Textile Manufacturing – The Spinning Jenny (1764) used a single wheel to control several spindles allowing many threads to be spun at once. Large quantities of threads could now be made quickly and inexpensively. James Watt improved the steam engine (1769) which made steam power available for mechanical purposes. Now factories could be built anywhere, since water was no longer required to power their machines.

Shift From Home To Factory – During the Industrial Revolution workers began working in factories, where they used machines driven by water or steam power. Production increased dramatically.

Working Conditions – Unsafe and Unpleasant Conditions, Long Hours, Low Pay, Women and Children Also Worked.

Urbanization – Fewer people were needed on farms because of agricultural improvements, Large numbers of workers moved from their farms and homes in the countryside to cities, Cities became crowded and highly unsanitary, Pollution from factory smoke became a growing problem.

Changes in Transportation Technology – Steam engines were applied to steam boats in the early 1800’s, In the 1820’s they were used to power locomotives, Railroads unified the economy of a region by linking cities, factories, towns, and the countryside together.

Reform Movements – Social Reforms- Parliament banned women and children from working in the mines, limited working hours to ten hours, and brought about safer working conditions, Municipal Reforms- Made cities cleaner, improved quality of drinking water, introduced sewer systems, put in street lamps, employed police forces, and introduced free public schools, Worker’s Unions- Some workers organized into unions and threatened to strike if they did not obtain higher wages and better conditions, Political Reforms- The rising middle class of factory owners, merchants, and bankers demanded greater political power. By the late 19th century, all adult males could vote in Britain, but not women.

Imperialism – The political and economic control of one area or country by another. In the 19th century, the European Great Powers suddenly acquired vast colonial empires in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.

The British Raj (Reign) in India – During the 18th century, the British had defeated France and many local rulers to extend their control throughout much of the Indian subcontinent. British rule brought many changes.

Impact of British Rule in India – Government – The British provided a single system of law and government, unifying India. Economic – The British built roads, bridges, and railroads and set up telegraph wires. Health – The British built hospitals, introduced new medicines, and provided famine relief. Social – Indians were looked down upon by the British and their culture was treated as inferior to European culture.

New Imperialism – From 1880 to 1900, almost every corner of the Earth came to be claimed by European powers.

Causes of New Imperialism – Advancements in technology such as the steamboat, telegram, railroads, medicines, and rifles helped make it possible. New European countries like Germany, Italy, and Belgium wanted colonies to show they were equal to older European states. European countries sought colonies to obtain resources and to find markets to sell their manufactured goods. Many European imperialists looked to dominate Africa and Asia as part of their duty to spread what they saw as their superior civilization and culture. (“White Man’s Burden”).

The Scramble for Africa – From 1870 – 1900, European powers competed for control of Africa and its resources. In 1884 European rulers met to carve up the map of Africa at the Berlin Conference

The Legacy of Imperialism in Africa – POSITIVE EFFECTS: New medicine and nutrition increased life-span of Africans, Modern transportation and communications were introduced, Some Africans received educational and economic opportunities. NEGATIVE EFFECTS: Erosion of traditional African values and relationships, Forced to work long hours for low pay under horrible conditions, Tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries were ignored leading to continuing tribal conflicts.

Informal Imperialism – Even in areas where they did not establish direct rule, European powers often dominated an area’s economy.

Spanish-American War – In 1898, the battleship U.S.S. Maine was blown up, killing 250 American sailors. The US declared war on Spain and defeated them quickly. As a result, the US acquired its first colonies – Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

At Home Learning 3/30/20 – 4/12/20

Coach Blankenship’s World History Extended Break Assignment 2.0

Students, during the extended, extended break due to the coronavirus threat, please go ahead and get the Vocabulary done for the next unit after the one on Absolutism and Enlightenment which will be Chapters 22-25. These Chapters will cover the American Revolution, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and Imperialism. Please write them in your notebook as you normally would and I will check them off when we get back. If possible, use the textbook definition using your online textbook. If you are unable to access the online version of the book, you may use any dictionary to define the terms. Here is the list of words:

Ch. 22-25 Vocabulary (I shortened this list):

  1. Taille
  2. Bourgeosie
  3. Coup d’etat
  4. Nationalism
  5. Conservatism
  6. Liberalism
  7. Capital
  8. Entrepreneur
  9. Socialism
  10. Militarism
  11. Emancipation
  12. Abolitionism
  13. Cash crop
  14. Secularization
  15. Communism
  16. Proletariat
  17. Feminism
  18. Suffrage
  19. Social Darwinism
  20. Zionism
  21. Imperialsim
  22. Protectorate
  23. Indirect rule
  24. Direct rule
  25. Annex
  26. Sepoy
  27. Viceroy
  28. Dollar Diplomacy

At Home Learning 3/16/20 – 3/29/20

Students, during the extended break due to the coronavirus threat, please go ahead and get the Vocabulary done for the next unit that we will be testing over when we get back. The next unit is Chapters 18 and 21 which is over Absolutism and Enlightenment. Please write them in your notebook as you normally would and I will check them off when we get back. If possible, use the textbook definition using your online textbook. If you are unable to access the online version of the book, you may use any dictionary to define the terms. Here is the list of words:

Ch. 18/21 Vocabulary

  1. heretic
  2. armada
  3. inflation
  4. divine right of kings
  5. Puritans
  6. Cavaliers
  7. Roundheads
  8. natural rights
  9. absolutism
  10. absolute monarchy
  11. czar
  12. boyar
  13. Mannerism
  14. baroque
  15. geocentric
  16. heliocentric
  17. universal law of gravitation
  18. rationalism
  19. scientific method
  20. inductive reasoning
  21. philosophe
  22. separation of powers
  23. deism
  24. laissez-faire
  25. free enterprise system
  26. social contract
  27. salons
  28. rococo
  29. enlightened absolutism
  30. popular sovereignty
  31. federal system

Lesson Plans 2/24/20 – 2/28/20

MONDAY: QOTD, Crash Course on Columbus, Begin Ch. 14/17 Notes

TUESDAY: QOTD, Continue Ch. 14/17 Notes, Begin Ch. 14/17 Presentations

WEDNESDAY (Short Day, Periods 1-5 Only): QOTD, Crash Course on Columbian Exchange, Continue Ch. 14/17 Notes

THURSDAY (w/ Substitute): Ch. 17 Lesson 1,2 Quiz, work on Ch. 14/17 Presentations

FRIDAY (w/ Substitute): Work on Ch. 14/17 Presentations

Lesson Plans 2/10/20 – 2/14/20

MONDAY: QOTD, Presentations on Renaissance and Reformation

TUESDAY: QOTD, Crash Course on Renaissance, Begin Ch. 15/16 Notes

WEDNESDAY: QOTD, Continue Ch. 15/16 Notes

THURSDAY: QOTD, Continue Ch. 15/16 Notes

FRIDAY: QOTD, Journal Entry #14, Watch Video on Protestant Reformation w/ Notes