Students, during this 4th and final round of at-home learning, please go ahead and copy the following shortened notes into your World History notebooks. Since school has been canceled for the year, it is very important that you take pictures of the vocabulary and notes that you have written in your notebook for these at home learning assignments and email them to me at [email protected] . If you are having difficulty emailing me pictures of your vocabulary and notes, let me know. I also encourage you, if you are able, to watch some more videos that go along with these lessons. I definitely recommend watching the following videos, if you are able, to gain a better understanding of World War I and II and other major events of the 20th century.
Hope yall are all doing well!
Keith Hughes on WWI – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOq8iG20iuQ
John Green Crash Course on WWI – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_XPZQ0LAlR4
Indy Neidell The Great War WWI Trench Warfare – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P92guhd7d-8
John Green Crash Course on The Great Depression – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCQfMWAikyU
History Channel Documentary WWII From Space (lengthy but very good) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N-P4GoG69Xw
Keith Hughes on WWII – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7fCsXjCW1M
Ch. 27 World War 1
The causes of World War I – Militarism, Alliance System, Imperialism, Industrialization, and Nationalism
Militarism – aggressive preparation for war
Archduke Francis Ferdinand – heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire that is assassinated in Bosnia by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand. Austria wants to attack Serbia, but fears Russia because of an alliance between Russia and Serbia.
Emperor William II of Germany promises Germany’s full support to Austria Hungary because of an alliance between the two countries.
Czar Nicholas II of Russia orders mobilization of Russia’s military to defend Serbia.
Schlieffen Plan- Germany plans for a two front war. To the East – Russia, To the West – France.
Great Britain declares war on Germany when Germany violates Belgian neutrality.
Propoganda – ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Trench Warfare – new style of warfare where both sides dig trenches to avoid certain death from enemy machine gun and artillery fire. New technology and industrialization had changed warfare forever. Both sides become bogged down and the war becomes a war of attrition (trying to wear the other side down).
Air Warfare – the first military airplanes were used to spot enemy positions, attack ground targets, and shoot down enemy aircraft.
U-boats – German submarines used to attack large military and civilian ships.
Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers – Russia, France, Great Britain, Serbia, Italy, Romania, Greece, Portugal, United States (eventually)
The United States officially enters WWI, primarily because of Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare (German U-boats sinking civilian ships, including the Lusitania)
Russia was unprepared for war and suffered many losses, by 1917 Russia no longer wants to fight. Strikes break out and the government is overthrown after a civil war between the communists and anti-communists. The USSR or Soviet Union is born and Russia becomes a Communist country and ends its involvement in WWI by giving up a large territory.
The United States really came in and helped win the war for the Allied Powers. Armistice (a truce or agreement to stop fighting) is signed on Nov. 11 1918. Woodrow Wilson was the US President during the war and was a spokesperson for democracy.
Treaty of Versailles – Treaty that officially ended WWI. Germany was declared responsible for starting the war and had to make reparations payments. The Germans felt it was a harsh peace.
League of Nations – Loose union of countries to ensure peace following WWI. This was part of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, which was his plan for just and lasting peace. However, Wilson could not get Congress to agree to join and it was very ineffective.
Ch. 28-30 The Great Depression and World War 2
U.S. After WWI – Emerged as the world’s greatest economic power. In 1924, 9 out of every 10 cars in the world were Ford’s. New appliances like the vacuum cleaner, refrigerator, and toaster were being enjoyed by America and Europe.
The Great Depression – In 1929, a stock market crash in New York started a chain reaction that sent the world into the Great Depression. The two main causes were over-speculation and over-production.
Reaction to the Great Depression – Most countries stopped spending and cut off trade, which made things worse. US President Franklin Roosevelt implemented his New Deal plan to put people back to work with public works projects.
Fascism – refers to a new political system that appeared in Europe in the disturbed conditions after WWI. Main characteristics of Fascism – Extreme Nationalism, All Powerful Leaders, Unity of All Social Classes, Extreme Militarism. The roots of Fascism include anti-semitism (hatred of Jews), racism in general, and Social Darwinism.
Benito Mussolini – Fascist that rose to power in Italy, had a private army called the “Black Shirts”, passed laws controlling the press, abolished unions, and murdered anyone that got in his way.
Adolf Hitler – Leader of the Nazi party in Germany, stirring speaker and writer (wrote Mein Kampf about his radical ideas), believed Germans were a superior “Aryan” race that should rule the world. The Nazis used violence to take full control in Germany and Hitler became absolute dictator. Jews were persecuted and killed. Hitler created jobs through public works projects and military rearmament. The Gestapo (secret police) arrested anyone who opposed Nazi rule.
Origins of WWII – Hitler sought revenge from Britain and France for Germany’s humiliating defeat in WWI. Hitler and Mussolini of Italy worked together to take aggressive steps. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, Hitler demanded Austria and part of Czechoslovakia. Britain and France appeased Hitler to try to avoid war. Then Hitler demanded Poland, but they refused to give in. The League of Nations failed to take action against Hitler’s Treaty Violations. In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, starting WWII.
Nazi Blitzkrieg – Germany used planes, tanks, and motorized troop carriers to advance rapidly into enemy territory crushing any resistance. The Nazi Germans quickly overran Poland, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, France, and much of North Africa.
Battle of Britain – Hitler hoped to overcome British resistance by bombing London and other British cities from the air. Winston Churchill, Britain’s Prime Minister rallied British resistance. The use of radar, the bravery of the British air force, and Britain’s island location kept Hitler from defeating the British.
Germany Invades the Soviet Union – In 1941, Hitler betrayed an agreement with Stalin by launching a surprise attack on the Soviet Union, successfully invading deep into Russia. The winter of 1941 was one of the coldest on record, freezing German tanks and trucks. Stalingrad was a key victory for the Soviets where they began to push the Germans back.
The War in Asia – Japan began invading China and other parts of Asia in the late 19th century for raw materials and markets for its successful industrialization. Only the United States was in position to prevent further Japanese expansion. The US threatened to blockade Japan’s oil supplies, unless Japan gave up some of its conquests. In response, Japan planned a surprise attack.
Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 Japan launched a massive surprise air attack on the US fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. More than 2,400 Americans were killed in this attack. Soon after, Hitler quickly joined Japan by declaring war on the United States.
Allied Powers – United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union, France
Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan
D-Day – June 6,1944 Allied troops landed in Normandy France to take on Hitler’s forces. Despite heavy casualties the Allies successfully overcame the German defense and began pushing into Europe.
The Holocaust – Refers to the attempted genocide of the Jews of Europe during WWII by the Nazis. Jews were sent to concentration camps where most of them were killed with poison gas. The ones that were spared did the work of running the camp and were subject to starvation and inhumane conditions. About 6 million Jews (⅔ of those living in Europe) were killed in the Holocaust. Also, about 6 million gypsies, Slavs, political prisoners, elderly, and mentally disabled people were also killed.
The War Ends in Europe – Germany began to lose ground on both the Eastern front by the Soviet Union, and on the western front by the United States and Britain. By 1945, the Allies occupied all of Germany. Hitler preferred the destruction of his country rather than its surrender and he committed suicide. Soon after, German military leaders surrendered. Several major Nazi leaders were tried and executed for “crimes against humanity” during the Nuremberg Trials.
The War in Asia Continues – Since Pearl Harbor, the US Navy began to slowly attack Pacific Islands that had come under Japanese control (island hopping). After Germany was defeated, the US turned its full strength against Japan.
Albert Einstein – German Jewish physicist, that escaped Nazi rule and fled to the United States. He wrote a letter to President Roosevelt urging him to support research into an “extremely powerful bomb of a new type.”
The Atomic Bomb Ends the War – Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project where leading scientists gathered in New Mexico to develop an atomic bomb. After Roosevelt’s death, Harry Truman authorized the use of the new atomic bomb against Japan, hoping to avoid the high casualties expected for both sides in a land invasion of Japan. Atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Japanese leaders were forced to surrender. WWII finally came to an end.
The Global Impact of WWII – As many as 70 million people died during WWII and much of Europe and Asia lay in ruins. Germany, Italy, and Japan were occupied and turned into democratic nations.
The United Nations – a new peace-keeping organization founded at the end of WWII (the US joined this time). It’s purpose was to maintain peace in the world while encouraging friendship and cooperation. Members agree to give up the use of force, except in self-defense. Also seeks to eliminate hunger, disease, and ignorance.